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Psychologists Explain How To Stop Overthinking Everything

心理學家解釋如何停止過度思考



Overthinking can lead to serious emotional distress and increase your risk of mental health problems

過度思考會導致嚴重的情緒困擾,并增加你罹患心理健康問題的風險

Thinking about something in endless circles — is exhausting.

在無窮無盡的循環中思考某件事ーー令人筋疲力盡。

While everyone overthinks a few things once in a while, chronic over-thinkers spend most of their waking time ruminating, which puts pressure on themselves. They then mistake that pressure to be stress.

雖然每個人都會時不時地多想一些事情,但長期過度思考的人大部分醒著的時間都在沉思,這給他們自己帶來了壓力,然后他們把這種壓力誤認為是應激。



Overthinking can take many forms: endlessly deliberating when making a decision (and then questioning the decision), attempting to read minds, trying to predict the future, reading into the smallest of details, etc.

過度思考可以表現為多種形式:
做決定時無休止的深入思考( 然后質疑決定 ) ,試圖讀心,試圖預測未來,分解最細小的細節,等等。

People who overthink consistently run commentaries in their heads, criticising and picking apart what they said and did yesterday, terrified that they look bad — and fretting about a terrible future that might await them

那些想太多的人總是在腦子里翻來覆去的發表評論,挑剔和批評他們昨天說的和做的,他們害怕自己看起來很糟糕—— 并且擔心一個可怕的未來可能會等著他們。

‘What ifs’ and ‘shoulds’ dominate their thinking, as if an invisible jury is sitting in judgement on their lives. And they also agonise over what to post online because they are deeply concerned about how other people will interpret their posts and upxes.

“ 假如”和“應該”主宰了他們的思維,仿佛一個看不見的陪審團正坐在審判他們的生活。
此外,他們還為在網上發布什么內容而苦惱,因為他們非常擔心其他人會如何解讀他們的帖子和更新。

They don’t sleep well because ruminating and worrying keep them awake at night. “Ruminators repetitively go over events, asking big questions: Why did that happen? What does it mean?” adds Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, the chair of the department of psychology at Yale University and the author of Women Who Think Too Much: How to Break Free of Overthinking and Reclaim Your Life. “But they never find any answers.”

他們睡眠不好是因為反復思考和擔憂讓他們夜不能寐。
“反芻者反復回顧事件,提出‘重大’問題:為什么會發生這種情況? 這意味著什么? ”
耶魯大學心理學系主任、《 想得太多的女人:如何擺脫過度思考和重新開始你的生活》一書的作者蘇珊 · 諾倫-胡克塞瑪補充道“ 但他們從未找到任何答案?!?br />


Many people overthink because they are scared of the future, and what could potentially go wrong. “Because we feel vulnerable about the future, we keep trying to solve problems in our head,” says David Carbonell, a clinical psychologist and author of “The Worry Trick: How Your Brain Tricks You into Expecting the Worst and What You Can Do About It.”

許多人過度思考是因為他們害怕未來,害怕可能出現的問題。
臨床心理學家、《煩惱的把戲 : 你的大腦如何欺騙你去做最壞的打算以及你能做些什么》一書的作者大衛·卡本威爾說,“因為我們對未來感到脆弱,所以我們一直試圖在頭腦中解決問題?!?br />
Extreme overthinking can easily sap your sense of control over your life. It robs us of active participation in everything around us.

極端的過度思考很容易削弱你對生活的控制感,它剝奪了我們對周圍一切事物的積極參與。

“Chronic worriers show an increased incidence of coronary problems and suppressed immune functioning. Dwelling on the past or the future also takes us away from the present, rendering us unable to complete the work currently on our plates. If you ask ruminators how they are feeling, none will say “happy.” Most feel miserable,” says Nicholas Petrie, a senior faculty member at the Center for Creative Leadership.

“ 慢性焦慮癥表明冠狀動脈問題和免疫功能受抑制的發生率增加,沉湎于過去或未來也會讓我們遠離現在,使我們無法完成目前擺在我們面前的工作,如果你問反芻者他們感覺如何,沒有人會說“高興”, 大多數人感覺很痛苦”創造性領導力中心高級教員尼古拉斯皮特里表示。

Overthinking can trap the brain in a worry cycle. When ruminating become as natural as breathing, you need to quickly deal with it and find a solution to it.

過度思考會使大腦陷入擔憂的循環。
當反芻變得像呼吸一樣自然時,你需要迅速處理它并找到解決辦法。

“When an unpleasant event puts us in a despondent mood, it’s easier to recall other times when we’ve felt terrible. That can set the stage for a ruminator to work herself into a downward spiral,” writes Amy Maclin of Real Simple.

艾米· 麥克林在《簡單生活》一書中寫道:“當一件不愉快的事情讓我們陷入沮喪的情緒時,我們更容易回憶起其他感覺糟糕的時候,這可能會為反芻者自己進入一個惡性循環創造條件?!?br />
How to defeat this pattern of thinking and win your life back

如何戰勝這種思維模式,贏回你的生活

Chronic worrying is not permanent. It’s a mental habit that can be broken. You can train your brain to look at life from a different perspective.

長期的擔憂并不是永久的,這是一種可以被打破的精神習慣,你可以訓練你的大腦從不同的角度看待生活。



“You can cultivate a little psychological distance by generating other interpretations of the situation, which makes your negative thoughts less believable,” says Bruce Hubbard, the director of the Cognitive Health Group and an adjunct assistant professor of psychology and education at Columbia University. This is called cognitive restructuring.

哥倫比亞大學心理學和教育學兼職助理教授、認知健康組主任布魯斯 · 哈伯德說: “你可以通過對事物產生其他解釋來培養一點心理距離,這會讓你的消極想法變得不可信?!?這就是所謂的認知重組。

Ask yourself — What’s the probability that what I’m scared of will actually happen? If the probability is low, what are some more likely outcomes?

問問你自己ーー我害怕的事情實際發生的可能性有多大?
如果可能性很低,那么更有可能的結果是什么呢?

If it’s a problem you keep ruminating about, rephrase the issue to reflect the positive outcome you’re looking for,” suggests Nolen-Hoeksema.
“Instead of “I’m stuck in my career,” tell yourself or better still write, “I want a job where I feel more engaged.” Then make a plan to expand your skills, network, and look for opportunities for a better career.

諾倫 · 何塞馬建議:“如果這是一個你一直在反復思考的問題,那么重新表述這個問題,以反映出你正在尋找的積極結果,” “與其說‘我被工作困住了’ ,不如告訴自己,或者最好是這樣:‘我想要一份讓我感覺更投入的工作?!比缓笾贫ㄒ粋€計劃來擴展你的技能,人際關系,并尋找更好的職業機會。

Find a constructive way of processing any worries or negative thoughts, says Honey. “Write your thoughts down in a journal every night before bed or first thing in the morning — they don’t have to be in any order. Do a ‘brain dump’ of everything on your mind onto the page. Sometimes that can afford a sense of relief, ” recommends Honey Langcaster-James, a psychologist.

找到一個有建設性的方法來處理任何的擔憂或消極的想法, “每天晚上睡覺前或早上的第一件事就是把你的想法寫在日記里ーー它們不需要按任何順序排列,把你腦子里所有的東西都“從大腦轉儲”到紙上, 有時候,這可以讓人感到輕松?!边@是心理學家漢妮詹姆斯的建議。



Recognise your brain is in overdrive or ruminating mode, and then try to snap out of it immediately. Or better still, distract yourself and redirect your attention to something else that requires focus.

認識到你的大腦處于超負荷運轉或沉思模式,然后嘗試立即擺脫它。
或者更好的做法是,分散自己的注意力,把注意力轉移到其他需要集中注意力的事情上。

“If you need to interrupt and replace hundreds of times a day, it will stop fast, probably within a day,” says Dr Margaret Weherenberg, a psychologist and author of The 10 Best-Ever Anxiety Management Techniques. “Even if the switch is simply to return attention to the task at hand, it should be a decision to change ruminative thoughts.”

心理學家、《十大最佳焦慮管理技巧》一書的作者瑪格麗特韋赫倫伯格博士表示: “如果你每天打斷并替換數百次,這種情況很快就會停止, 即使這種轉變僅僅是為了將注意力回到手頭的任務上,也應該是一個改變沉思思維的決定?!?br />
It takes practice, but with time, you will be able to easily recognise when you are worrying unnecessarily, and choose instead, to do something in real life rather than spending a lot of time in your head.

這需要練習,但是隨著時間的推移,你會很容易意識到你在不必要地擔憂,并選擇在現實生活中做一些事情,而不是花大量的時間在你的頭腦中。

For example, convert, “I can’t believe this happened” to “What can I do to prevent it from happening again?” or convert “I don’t have good friends!” to “What steps could I take to deepen the friendships I have and find new ones?” recommends Ryan Howes, PhD.

例如,將“真不敢相信發生了這樣的事 ”轉換為“我能做些什么來防止它再次發生? ”
或者將“我沒有好朋友! ” 轉變為“ 我可以采取哪些步驟來加深我的友誼,并找到新的友誼? ” 瑞安 · 豪斯博士建議。

Don’t get lost in thoughts about what you could have, would have, and should have done differently. Mental stress can seriously impact your quality of life.

不要迷失在你本可以、本應該這類不同的想法中,精神壓力會嚴重影響你的生活質量。

An overactive mind can make life miserable. Learning how to stop spending time in your head is one of the greatest gifts you can give yourself.

過于活躍的頭腦會使生活痛苦,學習如何停止在你的頭腦中花費時間是你能給自己的最好的禮物之一。

Like all habits, changing your destructive thought patterns can be a challenge, but it’s not impossible. With practice, you can train your brain to perceive things differently and reduce the stress of overthinking.

像所有的習慣一樣,改變你破壞性的思維模式可能是一個挑戰,但并非不可能。
通過練習,你可以訓練你的大腦以不同的方式感知事物,減少過度思考的壓力。

If overthinking is ruining your life, and if you think you may be spiralling into depression because of your thoughts, it pays to get professional help.

如果過度思考正在毀掉你的生活,如果你認為你可能會因為自己的思想而陷入抑郁,那么尋求專業幫助是值得的。